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Internet Of Things

History


1. The idea of adding sensors and intelligence to basic objects was discussed throughout the 1980s and 1990s (and there are arguably some much earlier ancestors), but apart from some early projects -- including an internet-connected vending machine -- progress was slow simply because the technology wasn't ready. Chips were too big and bulky and there was no way for objects to communicate effectively.


2. Processors that were cheap and power-frugal enough to be all but disposable were needed before it finally became cost-effective to connect up billions of devices. The adoption of RFID tags -- low-power chips that can communicate wirelessly -- solved some of this issue, along with the increasing availability of broadband internet and cellular and wireless networking. The adoption of IPv6 -- which, among other things, should provide enough IP addresses for every device the world (or indeed this galaxy) is ever likely to need -- was also a necessary step for the IoT to scale.


3. Kevin Ashton coined the phrase 'Internet of Things' in 1999, although it took at least another decade for the technology to catch up with the vision.


4. Adding RFID tags to expensive pieces of equipment to help track their location was one of the first IoT applications. But since then, the cost of adding sensors and an internet connection to objects has continued to fall, and experts predict that this basic functionality could one day cost as little as 10 cents, making it possible to connect nearly everything to the internet.


5. The IoT was initially most interesting to business and manufacturing, where its application is sometimes known as machine-to-machine (M2M), but the emphasis is now on filling our homes and offices with smart devices, transforming it into something that's relevant to almost everyone. Early suggestions for internet-connected devices included 'blogjects' (objects that blog and record data about themselves to the internet), ubiquitous computing (or 'ubicomp'), invisible computing, and pervasive computing. However, it was Internet of Things and IoT that stuck




Introduction


  • Internet based services are basically a connection of different computers and computing devices. Internet is a global network.

  • IOT envisages to extend the scope of this internet beyond computing and computer devices. It will connect different things which work on different platform that we see around us in homes and business.

  • The Internet of Things, or IoT, refers to the billions of physical devices around the world that are now connected to the internet, all collecting and sharing data. Thanks to the arrival of super-cheap computer chips and the ubiquity of wireless networks, it's possible to turn anything, from something as small as a pill to something as big as an aeroplane, into a part of the IoT.

  • Connecting up all these different objects and adding sensors to them adds a level of digital intelligence to devices that would be otherwise dumb, enabling them to communicate real-time data without involving a human being. The Internet of Things is making the fabric of the world around us more smarter and more responsive, merging the digital and physical universes.


IOT devices should be capable of :


o Exchange data with other connected and applications (Directly or Indirectly).

o Collect data from other devices and process the data locally.

o Send the data to centralized servers or cloud-based application for processing the data.

o Perform some tasks locally and other tasks within the IOT Infrastructure based on temporal and space constraints.


Characteristics of IoT

· Dynamic and Self adapting

· Self configuring

· Inter operable communication protocols

· Unique Identity

· Integrated into Information Network


Challenges

· Physical devices can be of different types, configuration, specifications, therefore unification of different technologies.

· Each of these devices will be supported through different other systems such as Cloud, Big data etc.



Author: Pranav Miglani


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